GLOSSARY OF ENERGY TERMS A and B
Acid Rain – Also called acid precipitation or acid deposition, acid rain is precipitation containing harmful amounts of nitric and sulfuric acids formed primarily by sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides released into the atmosphere when fossil fuels are burned. It can be wet precipitation (rain, snow, or fog) or dry precipitation (absorbed gaseous and particulate matter, aerosol particles or dust). Acid rain has a pH below 5.6. Normal rain has a pH of about 5.6, which is slightly acidic. The term pH is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and ranges from 0 to 14. A pH measurement of 7 is regarded as neutral. Measurements below 7 indicate increased acidity, while those above indicate increased alkalinity.
Air Conditioning – An assembly of equipment for air treatment consisting of a means for ventilation, air circulation, air cleaning, and heat transfer (either heating or cooling). The unit usually consists of an evaporator or cooling coil, and an electrically-driven compressor and condenser combination.
Alcohol (fuel) – A class of carbon-based liquid chemicals that have a certain combinations of hydrogen and oxygen called an alcohol group and that are capable of being used as fuel. Ethanol is one example.
Alternating Current (AC) – Flow of electricity that constantly changes direction between positive and negative sides. Almost all power produced by electric utilities in the United States moves in current that shifts direction at a rate of 60 times per second.
Alternative Fuels – as defined by the National Energy Policy Act the fuels are: methanol, denatured ethanol and other alcohols, separately or in mixtures of 85 percent by volume or more (or other percentage not less than 70 percent as determined by U.S. Department of Energy rule) with gasoline or other fuels; CNG; LNG; LPG; hydrogen; “coal-derived liquid fuels;” fuels “other than alcohols” derived from “biological materials;” electricity, or any other fuel determined to be “substantially not petroleum” and yielding “substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits.”
Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) – motor vehicles that run on fuels other than petroleum-based fuels. As defined by the National Energy Policy Act (EPAct), this excludes reformulated gasoline as an alternative fuel.
Amp / Ampere – The unit of measure that tells how much electricity flows through a conductor. It is like using cubic feet per second to measure the flow of water. For example, a 1,200 watt, 120-volt hair dryer pulls 10 amperes of electric current (watts divided by volts).
American Recover and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) – U.S. Congress passed this legislation on February 13, 2009, at the urging of President Obama, who signed it into law four days later. A direct response to the economic crisis, the Recovery Act strives to create new jobs and save existing ones, spur economic activity and invest in long-term grown, and foster unprecedented levels of accountability and transparency in government spending. Among its objectives, the act makes $275 billion available for federal contracts, grants, and loans.
Anaerobic Digestion – A biological process in which biodegradable organic matters are broken down by bacteria into biogas, which consists of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and other trace amount of gases. The biogas can be used to generate heat and electricity.
Ancillary Services – The services other than scheduled energy that are required to maintain system reliability and meet WSCC/NERC operating criteria. Such services include spinning, non-spinning, and replacement reserves, voltage control, and black start capability.
Anthracite – Hard coal, found deep in the earth. It burns very hot, with little flame. It usually has a heating value of 12,000-15,000 British thermal units (Bt
Atom – The smallest unit of an element consisting of a dense positively charged nucleus (of protons and neutrons) orbited by negatively charged electrons.
Atomic Energy Commission – The independent civilian agency of the federal government with statutory responsibility to supervise and promote use of nuclear energy. Functions were taken over in 1974 by the Energy Research and Development Administration (now part of the U.S. Department of Energy) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
Avoided Cost – 1. (Regulatory) The amount of money that an electric utility would need to spend for the next increment of electric generation to produce or purchase elsewhere the power that it instead buys from a co-generator or small-power producer. Federal law establishes broad guidelines for determining how much a qualifying facility (QF) gets paid for power sold to the utility.
2. The cost the utility would incur but for the existence of an independent generator or other energy service option. Avoided cost rates have been used as the power purchase price utilities offer independent suppliers.
Ash - Impurities consisting of silica, iron, alumina, and other noncombustible matter that are contained in coal. Ash increases the weight of coal, adds to the cost of handling, and can affect its burning characteristics Ash content is measured as a percent by weight of coal on an “as received” or a “dry” (moisture-free, usually part of a laboratory analysis) basis.
Asphalt – A dark brown-to-black cement-like material obtained by petroleum processing and containing bitumens as the predominant component; used primarily for road construction.
Barrel – In the petroleum industry, a barrel is 42 U.S. gallons. One barrel of oil has an energy content of 6 million British thermal units.
Base Load – The lowest level of power production needs during a season or year.
Battery, Alkaline – A device that stores energy and produces electric current by chemical action.
Balancing Authority (electric) - The responsible entity that integrates power plant resources ahead of time and maintains the balance between electricity production and use within a particular region.
Benzene - An aromatic hydrocarbon present in small proportion in some crude oils and made commercially from petroleum by the catalytic reforming of naphthenes in petroleum naphtha. Also made from coal in the manufacture of coke. Used as a solvent in the manufacture of detergents, synthetic fibers, petrochemicals, and as a component of high-octane gasoline.
Bioconversion – Processes that use plants or micro-organisms to change one form of energy into another. For example, an experimental process uses algae to convert solar energy into gas that could be used for fuel.
Biodiesel – a biodegradable transportation fuel for use in diesel engines that is produced through the transesterification of organically- derived oils or fats. It may be used either as a replacement for or as a component of diesel fuel.
Biofuel - Fuel produced from renewable biomass material, commonly used as an alternative, cleaner fuel source.
Biogas – The mixture of methane, carbon dioxide, and other minor gases formed from the decomposition of organic materials.
Biomass – Energy resources derived from organic matter. These include wood, agricultural waste and other living-cell material that can be burned to produce heat energy. They also include algae, sewage and other organic substances that may be used to make energy through chemical processes.
Bituminous Coal – Soft coal containing large amounts of carbon. It has a luminous flame and produces a great deal of smoke.
Blackout – A power loss affecting many electricity consumers over a large geographical area for a significant period of time.
Boiler – A closed vessel in which water is converted to pressurized steam.
Boiling Water Reactor – A nuclear power unit in which water used as a coolant is allowed to boil at the core. The resulting steam may be used to drive electric turbines.
Breeder Reactor – A nuclear reactor that produces more fuel than it consumes. The breeder, invented in the United States, is used as a power source in several European countries.
British Thermal Unit (Btu) – The standard measure of heat energy. It takes one Btu to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit at sea level. For example, it takes about 2,000 Btu to make a pot of coffee. One Btu is equivalent to 252 calories, 778 foot-pounds, 1055 joules, and 0.293 watt-hours. Note: In the abbreviation, only the B is capitalized.
Brownout – A controlled power reduction in which the utility decreases the voltage on the power lines, so customers receive weaker electric current. Brownouts can be used if total power demand exceeds the maximum available supply. The typical household does not notice the difference.
Butane – A hydrocarbon gas found in the earth along with natural gas and oil. Butane turns into a liquid when put under pressure. It is sold as bottled gas. It is used to run heaters, stoves and motors, and to help make petrochemicals.