Storing Energy: Fuel Cells and Beyond

Fuel input for hydrogen-fuel-cell-powered vehicle. Photo from Siemens PLM in Cypress California.

Storing energy is important for both long-term and short-term uses: to meet changes in energy supply and demand and to iron out irregularities in energy output, whether that’s in a car engine or on the power grid.

Unfortunately, we can only store a tiny fraction  of the electricity we produce in a single day. Instead, power plants have to send their thousands of megawatts of electricity to the right place, at the right time. For more details about electricity transmission, see Power Grid Technology.

Our current electric grid has various quick storage solutions to help make energy delivey smooth, and we use energy storage in cars, phones, and anything else that needs to be moved around. However, batteries and other storing options leave much to be desired.

Devices like capacitors and flywheels can store energy for extremely short periods.  Few technologies exist to store large amounts of energy over time periods ranging to several days: only pumped (water) storage is widely used to store energy on the scale of a power plant.

As energy sources are expanding to include more renewable and intermittent resources like wind and solar onto the electricity grid as we try to both meet growing energy demand and control greenhouse gas emissions. Likewise, there is increased interest in having reliable energy storage for vehicles, instead of gasoline and diesel fuels.

 

BATTERIES

Depending on the type of battery, these devices can store energy on location, like at home or in the car, in a laptop or cell phone. Note that though batteries and fuel cells can help integrate renewable energy sources, most electricity is still generated from fossil fuels. Both charging batteries and making hydrogen for fuel cells  thus produce greenhouse gas through reliance on the prevailing sources of electricity, and using these devices is less efficient than plugging into the wall because there’s always energy loss to byproducts like heat.

Batteries store chemical energy. Chemical reactions in the battery release that energy as needed. Eventually all the starting materials of the reaction are consumed and the battery is dead, or at least unusable until it’s recharged. There are many kinds of batteries, made of a wide array of chemicals. Polysulfide Bromide (PSB), Vanadium Redox (VRB), Zinc Bromine (ZnBr), Hydrogen Bromine (H-Br), and sodium sulfide batteries are some that the electricity industry has interest in.

Electric utilities use lead-acid batteries, which can be recharged, but there is research into other materials for utility and transportation use. Some of the best batteries used today for cars are nickel metal hydride and lithium ion.

 

HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS

Hydrogen fuel cells aren’t the same as batteries, but they can serve a similar purpose. Fuel cells are lumped with batteries because they both function through stored chemical energy. However, in practice, fuel cells are more like engines. They run off hydrogen “fuel” and produce energy and waste products, mostly  water vapor. As long as hydrogen keeps being added, the cell can run, just like a gasoline engine can keep running as long as more gasoline is added. A battery has a finite amount of energy unless it’s recharged with electricity.

For more about how to make hydrogen for fuel cells, see The hydrogen economy, hydrogen sources, and the science behind these.

For a description of different hydrogen fuel cells in development right now, see here.

 

FLYWHEELS

One way to smooth bumps in electricity delivery is through flywheels, which store energy in the form of rotational kinetic energy. A spinning potter’s wheel stores the energy of a good kick to be used moments later to mold a clay pot, and flywheels operate on a similar principle. In automobile engines, flywheels ease the transition between bumpy firing pistons and the drive shaft.

Flywheels can store energy for limited periods of time, from seconds to a few minutes.

 

PUMPED STORAGE

Pumped storage (of water) is the only widely-used method for storing huge amounts of energy for long periods of time. The United States has a capacity of more than 20,000 megawatts of pumped storage, according to the National Hydropower Association.

During times of excess electricity production, that excess energy is used to pump water to a higher altitude, increasing its gravitational potential energy. When extra energy is needed, the water is allowed to flow back down by way of turbines, turning that potential energy back into electricity.

For a figure of pumped storage see the National Hydropower Association

 

OTHER WAYS TO STORE ENERGY

Other technologies are constantly being investigated for energy storage. Compressed air storage is when air is forced into spaces like mines or caves and held at high pressure, using up energy in the process. When the compressed air is let out again, it can turn turbines to generate electricity.

Thermal energy storage exploits the difference in temperature between a system and the environment. In the late 1800s, Americans used thermal energy storage by cutting blocks of lake ice during the winter and storing them underground packed in insulating wood shavings. When the summer rolled around, they retrieved that stored ice to make food cold, exploiting the difference in temperature to force thermal energy out of the food.

Thermal energy storage can also happen in the other direction. Electricity or other forms of energy can be used to heat various materials, which are stored in insulated containers. Later, when the energy is needed, the hot materials can heat water into steam, and that steam can push turbines, which in turn produce electricity.

Thermal energy storage can also be used through ocean energy.

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The Hydrogen Economy, Hydrogen Sources, and the Science Behind These

The hydrogen-filled Hindenburg in 1936 or 1937. Photo from DeGolyer Library at Southern Methodist University.

THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY

The hydrogen economy is a hypothetical future in which energy can be bought, sold, stored, and transported in a currency of hydrogen, much like today’s energy is often exchanged in electricity. Because hydrogen doesn’t need to be attached to the electricity grid, it can be used in forms of transportation like buses and cars.

The end-user of the hydrogen, for example an automobile driver, doesn’t experience significant pollution beyond the formation of water from burning the hydrogen.

For more details about the hydrogen economy see here.

Hydrogen, a gas, isn’t a fuel like gasoline or coal; hydrogen is a way to store and transport energy made from other fuels, like a battery or electricity. Unlike fossil fuels, pure hydrogen isn’t stable, so forming hydrogen in the first place requires energy and produces carbon dioxide, and storing hydrogen involves special considerations because this light gas is very flammable and also quickens rust and oxidation in pipelines and storage containers.

HOW HYDROGEN IS DIFFERENT FROM FOSSIL FUELS

Allowing hydrogen (a gas) to burn in the presence of oxygen releases that stored energy in the form of heat. Hydrogen can also be reacted in a fuel cell to produce electricity. In either case, electricity or heat can then be used to power cars or any number of other devices. Gasoline, biofuels, wood, and other carbon-based fuels all produce carbon dioxide when they are burned, and rising carbon dioxide levels are widely implicated in climate change. Burning hydrogen produces energy, water and a few trace compounds, but it doesn’t produce carbon dioxide.

2 H2 (hydrogen gas) + O2 (oxygen gas) = 2 H2O (water vapor) + energy

It’s unclear what widespread emission of water vapor could do. According to recent published estimates, atmospheric water vapor is responsible for 75 percent of the greenhouse effect. However, water vapor can condense, and it’s naturally-occurring in the atmosphere. It is much easier to trap and transform to liquid than the carbon dioxide normally emitted by burning gasoline. Carbon dioxide won’t form a liquid at atmospheric temperatures and will solidify into dry ice only below -108.4 Fahrenheit, so proponents say it can be easier to trap the vapor in hydrogen-powered machines.

If the energy used to generate and purify and store and ship hydrogen doesn’t require emitting greenhouse gases or toxics, proponents argue that hydrogen is a clean alternative.

SOURCES OF HYDROGEN: THE UNFORTUNATE REALITY TODAY

Hydrogen, not carbon, is the most prevalent atom in the human body. There are two hydrogen atoms in every water molecule, and as many as hundreds of hydrogen atoms on the basic building blocks of life, from DNA to plant fibers. Nonetheless, harvesting the hydrogen atoms out of any of these structures to make hydrogen fuel isn’t easy because hydrogen likes to be bonded to carbon or oxygen; it doesn’t like to be elemental gas.

To produce pure hydrogen today, industries use primary fuel source like petroleum, natural gas, coal, or biomass. Through chemical processing, the hydrogen atoms are stripped from the fuel by way of an input of energy from electricity (more than 80 percent of which comes from fossil fuels in the United States). Furthermore, the leftover material from the stripping is carbon dioxide, the same carbon dioxide that would have been produced if the fuel was burned in an engine.

The reactions for various fuel to hydrogen conversions can be found on the U.S. Department of Energy website here.

Hydrogen can also be produced, at great energy loss, through the electrolysis of water: using electricity, water is divided into its constituents, hydrogen and oxygen. However, water electrolysis is the least carbon-neutral hydrogen production method, and it is very expensive ($3 to $6 per kilogram instead of a little more than $1 in the case of using coal for hydrogen), according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration. All hydrogen production methods result in a net energy loss.

 

 

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What Is A Nuclear Reaction?

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Photovoltaic Cells, Solar Power, and LEDs

Most of the world’s energy can go back to our sun. Every day we are heated by its electromagnetic rays, and plants use the sun’s energy to make sugars and ultimately proteins and other good things to eat. Fossil fuels were also once made from these plant and other organisms that relied on the sun’s energy millions of years ago. Today, humans can convert the sun’s energy directly into electricity, through solar thermal and solar photovoltaic systems.

SOLAR THERMAL OR PHOTOVOLTAIC?

Solar panels, also called solar thermal, convert sunlight to heat and then heat to electricity. Photovoltaic cells, or solar cells, convert sunlight directly into electric current by way of carefully-engineered semiconductor materials.

Though solar photovoltaics are more efficient converters of sunlight, they are also more expensive.

As of May 2011, the world’s largest solar power plant is a concentrating solar thermal power plant in the Mohave desert in California. Solar Energy Generating Systems has a capacity of 310 megawatts and uses parabola-shaped reflective troughs to concentrate electromagnetic radiation.

The world’s largest solar photovoltaic plant is probably the Sarnia Solar Project in Ontario, Canada. It has a capacity of roughly 80 megawatts.

HOW SOLAR THERMAL WORKS

Sunlight heats a design element (water, air, chemical fluids), and that thermal energy is transmitted for other applications, such as heating water, heating space, or generating electricity. In solar thermal power plants, sunlight heats a specialized fluid, which in turn heats water into steam, which can run turbines and produce electricity.

Solar thermal power plants use concentrators that bounce the sunlight off elliptical mirrors to a central tube, in which the specialized fluid lies.

HOW PHOTOVOLTAICS WORK

Photovoltaic cells are made of specialized diodes. Electrons (natural components of atoms) in the photovoltaic cells absorb light, which excites them to a state where they can be conducted as electrical current. This difference in energy, between the valence band (the state of a normal electron staying around its home atom) to the conduction band (electron free to move between atoms) is called the band gap.

Solar photovoltaic farm in Indonesia. Photo by Chandra Marsono.

Well-engineered photovoltaics have a band gap that coincides with the energies of as broad a spectrum of light as possible, to convert the maximum amount of the sunlight into electricity.

As sunlight energy pops electrons into the conduction band and away from their home atoms, an electric field is produced. The negatively-charged electrons separate from the positively-charged “holes” they leave behind, so that when electrons are freed into the conduction band, they move as electric current in the electric field, electricity.

PHOTOVOLTAICS ARE MADE OF SPECIALIZED MATERIALS

An ever-expanding variety of semiconductor materials can be used to make solar cells; universities and companies worldwide are researching these options, from special bio-plastics to semiconductor nanocrystals. Nonetheless, the photovoltaic cells available today require precise manufacturing conditions and are therefore far more expensive to produce than solar panels.

Silicon has to be processed under clean room conditions — carefully regulated atmospheres — to remove impurities and prevent introducing contaminants, both of which can change the band gap. Thin film-based photovoltaics require special production methods, like chemical vapor deposition. Semiconductor processing also uses strong acids and often dangerous chemicals for etching.

Today, commercially-sold cells are made from purified silicon or other crystalline semiconductors like cadmium telluride or copper indium gallium selenide.

WHERE DO WE GET THE STARTING MATERIALS?

Silicon is plentiful in the Earth’s crust. Cadmium is a readily available but highly toxic heavy metal, as is arsenic, another chemical used in some cells. As tellurium demand is only recently rising in response to solar demand, it’s unknown what the global supply is for this unusual element but it may be quite abundant. Photovoltaics are a lively area of research, and the future production and environmental costs of starter materials, production, and pollution are difficult to predict.

California, Massachusetts, Ohio, and Michigan produced the most photovoltaics in 2009. However, that year, 58 percent of photovoltaics were imports, primarily from Asian countries like China, Japan, and the Philippines.

LED TECHNOLOGY: MORE THAN HEADLAMPS

Photovoltaic cells work in the opposite direction of light-emitting diodes, or LEDs. LEDs are used interchangeably with other lighting, like light bulbs. However, LED’s work in a completely different manner, far closer to the way photovoltaics work.

Click here see a bar chart comparing how much energy is used by various light sources.

LEDs absorb energy in the form of electricity, exciting electrons into the conduction band. When the electrons in the semiconductor material drop back into the valence band from the conduction band, they emit energy in the form of photons, or electromagnetic radiation.

It’s a highly efficient process because energy isn’t wasted on producing heat, which happens with standard tungsten filament bulbs. LEDs also last a much longer time as they do not have filaments to burn out, and because they are very small and several units are used to replace one large traditional lamp, they do not all burn out at once. That makes LEDs a good choice for stoplights or other safety critical applications.

 

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Thermodynamics and Thermal Energy

Thermodynamics is the study of how energy moves and changes form, usually by way of heat, as suggested by the components of its name: thermo-dynamics. Its laws and equations help to predict what could happen in various situations, based on the temperature, pressure, materials, and shape of a system.

Thermodynamics tells us how to calculate the ultimate temperature of a refrigerator or how much energy we can get out of a steam engine. Thermodynamics can also be applied to chemistry and the world on an atomic level, predicting which compounds are stable at specific temperatures and pressures. Thermodynamics explains why diamonds form naturally and spontaneously from carbon-based compounds deep inside the Earth, but they cannot form spontaneously here on the surface.

Thermodynamics relies on the idea that energy is conserved, even if it is transferred from or to a system to its surroundings through heat, changes in momentum, or other forms of energy.

 

TEMPERATURE AND HEAT

Heat and thermal energy are directly related to temperature. We can’t see individual atoms vibrating in solids, liquids, and gases, but we can feel their kinetic energies as temperature. Atoms in solids, liquids, and gases do vibrate. If they didn’t, they would be at absolute zero, a theoretical state of zero thermal energy at ­-459.67 Fahrenheit.

When there’s a difference between the temperature of the environment and a system within it, thermal energy is transferred between them as heat. Something doesn’t have heat. Instead, as an object or system gains or loses heat, it increases or decreases its thermal energy.

Adjacent objects that exhibit different temperatures will spontaneously transfer heat to try to reach the same temperature as each other, or equilibrium. However, how much energy it takes to change the temperature of an object is based on what its made of, a property called heat capacity or thermal capacity.

Water has a higher heat capacity than steel, for example. An empty pot on the stove takes almost no time to get to 212 degrees Fahrenheit, or the boiling temperature of water. A pot with some water in it will take far much longer to reach the same temperature, because water needs to absorb more energy — per weight, per degree — to gain the same number of degrees as metal. (Even though the vaporization temperature of metal is far, far higher than the water’s).

 

THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE: A SOURCE OF POWER

Thermal energy storage exploits the difference in temperature between a system and the environment. In the late 1800s, Americans used thermal energy storage by cutting blocks of lake ice during the winter and storing them underground packed in insulating wood shavings. When the summer rolled around, they retrieved that stored ice to make food cold, exploiting the difference in temperature to force thermal energy out of the food and into the ice.

Thermal energy storage can also happen in the other direction. Electricity or other forms of energy can be used to heat various materials, which are stored in insulated containers. Later, when the energy is needed, the hot materials can heat water into steam, and that steam can push turbines, which in turn produce electricity.

Solar panels use thermal energy storage. The panels absorb the heat of sunlight and store that energy so it can be transformed into electricity with turbines. There are several kinds of solar panels, but all rely on heat for energy, unlike photovoltaic cells.

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Forms of Energy: Motion, Heat, Light, Sound

What forms of energy is Raul using to move his LEGO car?

When he was a teenager in Romania, Raul Oaida became obsessed with building things: a jet-engine bike, a tiny spaceship, a LEGO car that runs on air. Why? Well, why not?

You can see more cool stories about energy at The Adaptors website.

Like video and audio? Check out The Adaptors Podcast.

 

Energy comes in two basic forms: potential and kinetic

Potential Energy is any type of stored energy. It can be chemical, nuclear, gravitational, or mechanical.

Kinetic Energy is found in movement. An airplane flying or a meteor plummeting each have kinetic energy. Even the tiniest things have kinetic energy, like atoms vibrating when they are hot or when they transmit sound waves. Electricity is the kinetic energy of flowing electrons between atoms.

energy_forms_pie-chartEnergy can shift between forms, but it is never destroyed or created.

A car transforms the potential energy trapped in gasoline into various types of energy that help the wheels turn and get the car to move. Most of the energy is converted to thermal energy, which is an unorganized form of energy that is difficult to convert into a useful form.

Power plants transform one form of energy into a very useful form, electricity. Coal and natural gas plants use the chemical potential energy trapped in fossil fuels. Nuclear power plants change the nuclear potential energy of uranium or plutonium into electricity too. Wind turbines change the kinetic energy of air molecules in wind into electricity. Hydroelectric power plants take advantage of the gravitational potential energy of water as it falls from the top of a dam to the bottom.

These transformations are hardly perfect. An efficient fossil fuel power plant loses more than half of the energy it creates to forms other than electricity, such as heat, light, and sound.

Forms of Potential Energy

GRAVITATIONAL

Systems can increase gravitational energy as mass moves away from the center of Earth or other objects that are large enough to generate significant gravity (our sun, the planets and stars).

For example, the farther you lift an anvil away from the ground, the more potential energy it has. Lifting the anvil is called work, which is an interaction in which energy is transferred from one system (the person) to another (the anvil). The person has to do more work in order to carry the anvil higher, and the higher the anvil is carried, the more gravitational potential energy is stored in the anvil. If the anvil is dropped, that potential energy transforms to kinetic energy as the anvil moves faster and faster toward Earth.

CHEMICAL

Chemical energy is stored in the bonds between the atoms in compounds. This stored energy is transformed when bonds are broken or formed through chemical reactions. Like letters of the alphabet that can be rearranged to form new words with very different meanings, atoms move around during chemical reactions, and they form new compounds with vastly different personalities.

When we burn sugar (a compound made of the elements hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon) in our bodies, the elements are reorganized into water and carbon dioxide. These reactions both absorb and release energy, but the overall result is that we get energy from the sugar, and our bodies use that energy to do work.

Chemical reactions that produce net energy are exothermic. When wood is burned, the chemical reactions taking place are exothermic. Electromagnetic and thermal energy are released. Only some chemical reactions release energy. Endothermic reactions need energy to start and to continue, such as by adding heat or light.

NUCLEAR

Today’s nuclear power plants are fueled by fission. Uranium or plutonium atoms are broken apart, freeing lots of energy. Hydrogen atoms in the sun experience nuclear fusion, combining to form helium and subsequently releasing large amounts of energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation and thermal energy.

Nuclear energy is the stored potential of the nucleus of an atom. Most atoms are stable on Earth; they keep their identities as particular elements, like hydrogen, helium, iron, and carbon, as identified in the Periodic Table of Elements. The number of protons in the nucleus tells you which element it is. Nuclear reactions change the fundamental identity of elements by splitting up an atom’s nucleus or fusing together more than one nucleus. These changes are called fission and fusion, respectively.

ELASTIC

Elastic energy can be stored mechanically in a compressed gas or liquid, a coiled spring, or a stretched elastic band. On an atomic scale, the stored energy is a temporary strain placed on the bonds between atoms, meaning there’s no permanent change to the material. These bonds absorb energy as they are stressed, and release that energy as they relax.

Forms of Kinetic Energy

MOTION

A moving object has kinetic energy. A basketball passed between players shows translational energy. That kinetic energy is proportional to the ball’s mass and the square of its velocity. To throw the same ball twice as fast, a player does more work and transfers four times the energy.

rotationalIf a player shoots a basketball with backspin or topspin, the basketball will also have rotational energy as it spins. Rotational energy is proportional to how many times it spins per second, as well as the ball’s mass, and the size and shape of the ball.

In shooting a basketball, players often try to add rotational energy as backspin, because it results in the greatest slowdown in speed when the basketball hits the rim or the backboard, increasing the chance that the ball stays near the basket. The opposite direction of spin, a topspin, can be used in games like tennis, because it will help speed up a ball after impact and lowers the angle it travels after the bounce.

THERMAL ENERGY AND TEMPERATURE

Thermal energy is directly related to temperature. We can’t see individual atoms vibrating, but we can feel their kinetic energies as temperature. When there’s a difference between the temperature of the environment and a system within it, thermal energy is transferred between them as heat.

tea kettleA hot cup of tea loses some of its thermal energy as heat flows from the tea to the air in the room. Over time, the tea cools to the same temperature as the room air. At the same time, the thermal energy in the room air increases due to heat transfer from the tea. However, the thermal capacitance of the room air is much larger than the tea, so the temperature of the air in the room increases by very little – so little that a person in the room wouldn’t notice it.

Heat  flows spontaneously from high temperature objects to nearby low temperature objects, until all objects reach the same temperature, called thermal equilibrium. Some materials are easier to heat up or cool down than others. The thermal capacitance, or heat capacity, of a material tells us how much energy it takes to raise that material one degree in temperature. A pound of water has greater thermal capacitance than the same amount of stainless steel, for example. In moments, an empty one pound pot on the stove heats to 212 degrees Fahrenheit (the boiling temperature of water). If you pour a pound of water into the pot, it will take much longer than the empty pot to reach the same temperature, because water needs more energy to get as hot as steel.

SOUND

Sound waves are made when stuff vibrates – like strings on an instrument or gas molecules in the air. Sound waves travel when the vibrating stuff causes stuff surrounding it to also vibrate. This happens in liquid, solid, or gaseous states. Sound cannot travel in a vacuum because a vacuum has no atoms to transmit the vibration.

Solids, liquids, and gases transmit sounds as waves, but the atoms that pass along the sound don’t travel the way photons do. The sound wave travels between atoms, like people passing along a “wave” in a sports stadium. Sounds have different frequencies and wavelengths (related to pitch) and different magnitudes (related to how loud).

Even though radio waves can transmit information about sound, they are a completely different kind of energy, called electromagnetic energy.

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION

PlantElectromagnetic energy is the same as radiation or light. This type of energy can take the form of visible light, like the light from a candle or a light bulb, or invisible waves, like radio waves, microwaves, x-rays and gamma rays. Radiation — whether it’s coming from a candle or an x-ray tube — can travel in a vacuum. Sometimes physicists describe electromagnetic radiation as being composed of particles – tiny packets of energy called photons. Each photon has a characteristic frequency, wavelength, and energy, but all photons travel at the same speed, the speed of light, or nearly 1 billion feet per second.

Electromagnetic energy can be converted to the chemical energy stored in plants through photosynthesis, the process by which plants and algae use the sun’s radiation to turn carbon dioxide gas into sugar and carbohydrates.

ELECTRIC

Electric energy is to the kinetic energy of moving electrons, the negatively-charged particles in atoms. For more information about electricity, see Basics of Electricity.

 

-Anrica Deb

 

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The Connection Between Greenhouse Gases, Climate Change & Global Warming


 

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLIMATE CHANGE AND GLOBAL WARMING?

Climate change is the shift in long-term, global weather patterns due to human action; it’s not exclusive to warming or cooling.

Climate change includes any change resulting from different factors, like deforestation or an increase in greenhouse gases. Global warming is one type of climate change, and it refers to the increasing temperature of the surface of Earth. According to NASA, the term global warming gained popular use after geochemist Wallace Broecker published a 1975 paper titled Climatic Change: Are We on the Brink of a Pronounced Global Warming?

Since 1880, the average surface temperature of the Earth has increased by roughly 0.9 degrees Fahrenheit, but the rate it’s increasing is faster than that, depending on which region you live in. If you’re closer to the equator, temperatures are increasing more slowly. The fastest increase in temperatures in the United States is in Alaska, where average temperatures have been increases by more than 3 degrees Fahrenheit per century. For a graph of average global temperatures by year, see the NASA website here.

 

HOW GREENHOUSE GASES RELATE TO CLIMATE CHANGE

Greenhouse gases are those thought to contribute to the greenhouse effect, an overall warming of the Earth as atmospheric gases trap electromagnetic radiation from the sun that would otherwise have been reflected back out into space.

Noteworthy greenhouse gases are methane, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). These gases are thought to affect the climate directly and indirectly, even though they constitute only a small fraction of the blanket of gases that make up the atmosphere.

Currently, the composition of the atmosphere is mostly nitrogen and oxygen, with just 0.033 percent carbon dioxide and all other gases accounting for even less.

 

WHICH GASES CONTRIBUTE THE MOST?


According to 2010 models cited by NASA, 20 percent of the greenhouse effect is attributed directly to carbon dioxide and 5 percent to all other greenhouse gases. The remaining 75 percent of the greenhouse effect is thought to be due to water vapor and clouds, which are naturally-occurring. However, even though carbon dioxide and the other greenhouse gases are such a small percentage of the total gas in the atmosphere, they affect when, where and how clouds form, so greenhouse gases have some relevance when it comes to 100 percent of the greenhouse effect. Carbon dioxide is thought to modulate the overall climate, like a atmospheric thermostat.

Some greenhouse gases are produced in natural processes, like forest fires, animal manure and respiration, or volcanic eruptions. However, the majority of new greenhouse gases are produced from industrial processes and energy production.

The four largest human sources of U.S. greenhouse gases in 2009 were energy, non-fuel use of fossil fuels, natural gas production, and cement manufacture, in descending order. Non-fuel, greenhouse gas-producing applications of fuels include industrial production like asphalt, lubricants, waxes and other . Emissions related to cement manufacture happen when limestone (calcium carbonate) is reacted with silica to make clinker, the lumps ground to make cement. ( Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009: Independent Statistics & Analysis.)

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Physics and How Machines Work

Machines are so complicated these days it’s difficult to quickly explain how they work. Nonetheless, today’s machines were built using the basic principles of physics that we began harnessing hundreds of years ago.

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Historical Events in Nuclear Fission

As is the case with so many scientific fields, the history of nuclear physics and energy development has always been wrapped up with the history of modern warfare.

An unprecedented level of research went into the American bomb program, applying a rapidly evolving understanding of nuclear physics immediately to building a weapon. That investment spurred the rest of the world to pursue nuclear fission, often using the energy as an excuse for the weapons development. Rather than isolate nuclear energy from its less peaceable counterpart, the timeline incorporates all types of nuclear history.

Recent nuclear media coverage:

Germany begins shutting down old reactors and considers swearing off nuclear power entirely. Germany Dims Nuclear Plants, but Hopes to Keep Lights On.

New evidence that Japan’s troubled reactors were destined to malfunction, tsunami or not, in The Explosive Truth Behind Fukushima’s Meltdown.

Add more here. TK

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